Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition/structure, and quality of forests to meet values and needs, specifically timber production.
The name comes from the Latin silvi- (‘forest’) and culture (‘growing’). The study of forests and woods is termed silvology. Silviculture also focuses on making sure that the treatment(s) of forest stands are used to conserve and improve their productivity.
Generally, silviculture is the science and art of growing and cultivating forest crops, based on a knowledge of silvics (the study of the life-history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to local/regional factors). The focus of silviculture is the control, establishment and management of forest stands.
The distinction between forestry and silviculture is that silviculture is applied at the stand-level, while forestry is a broader concept. Adaptive management is common in silviculture, while forestry can include natural/conserved land without stand-level management and treatments being applied.